Tincture means a medicine consisting of an extract in an alcohol solution. A mother tincture is the extract of the original drug substance; the extract being made with alcohol or water in certain proportion. All the medicines that are soluble in alcohol or water are first prepared in mother tincture form and from mother tincture further potencies are prepared.
Preparation of mother tinctures in homeopathic pharmacy
Hahnemann has clearly indicated his views and given his instructions regarding the preparation of homoeopathic mother tinctures from various sources in his Organon of Medicine at aphorism 269 and 271 including the foot notes. Hahnemann had evolved his own method of preparation of mother tinctures from vegetables sources. He classified these plant materials in four groups, depending upon the quantity of juice they contained - most juicy, moderately juicy, less juicy, dry plant samples and animal products. This classification is still prevalent in some countries and they follow this Hahnemannian method of preparation. If one closely studies these preparations from Class I to Class IV, one will find that there is no relation between the ratio of menstruum to the plant substance and the drug strength. Again the classification of juicy contents appears only arbitrary and does not appear to depend upon the actual quantity of fluids. However Class V to Class IX have a definite ratio between the menstruum and the drug substance and hence the drug strength. Class V and VI deal mostly with the inorganic and organic acids respectively, while Class VII deals with dry triturations and Class VIII deals with liquid trituration. Class IX trituration deals with fresh vegetable and animal substances (now discarded). The drug strength is 1/10/ or 1/100, which is uniform in all cases of mother tinctures except a few, the list of which is detailed in the
Tincture is prepared with equal parts by weight of juice and alcohol.
The fundamental rule for this class is contained in the Hahnemann's
Materia Medica Pura, under Belladonna. This is applicable to juicy but
not viscid material and not containing resins, terpines and volatile
oils. The freshly gathered plant or parts thereof, chopped and pounded
to a pulp are enclosed in a piece of new linen and subjected to
pressure. The expressed juice is then, by brisk agitation, mingled with
an equal part by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand for
eight days in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark cool place, and is
Drug power of the tincture is 1/2.a. Centesimal Scale : Two minims of tincture and ninety-eight minims of dilute alcohol give the 1st centesimal potency. One minim of the 1st potency and ninety-nine minims of dilute alcohol give the 2nd centesimal potency. All the succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to ninety-nine minims of dispensing alcohol.
b. Decimal Scale : Two minims of the tincture and eight minims of dilute alcohol give the 1x potency. One minim of the 1x potency and 9 minims of dilute alcohol give the 2x potency. One minim of the 2x potency and 9 minims of dilute alcohol give the 3x potency. All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to nine minims of dilute alcohol.
Tincture is expressed by the aid of two parts of alcohol added to three parts of plant or parts thereof. The fundamental rule for this class is contained in Hahnemann's Mat. Med. Pura, under Thuja. This is applicable to non-mucilaginous material containing resins, terpines or volatile oils. The finely chopped, fresh plant or a part thereof, is weighed. To every three parts, two parts by weight of alcohol are taken. Then the chopped plant is moistened with as much alcohol as is necessary to bring the mass to a thick pulp, and is well stirred. Adding the rest of the alcohol, the whole is mixed together and it is strained, is allowed to stand for eight days in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place and then filtered.
Drug power of the tincture is 1/2.
a. Centesimal Scale : Two minims of tincture and 98 minims of dilute alcohol give the 1st centesimal potency. One minim of the 1st potency and ninety-nine minims of alcohol give the 2nd centesimal potency. All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to
ninety-nine minims of dispensing alcohol.
b. Decimal Scale : Two minims of tincture and eight minims of dilute alcohol give 1x potency. One minim of 1x potency and nine minims of dilute alcohol give 2x potency. One minim of 2x potency and nine minims of alcohol give 3x potency. All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to
nine minims of dilute alcohol.
The tinctures are prepared with two parts by weight of alcohol to one part of plant, or part thereof. The fundamental rule for this class is contained in Hahnemann's Mat. Med. Pura, under Scilla. It is applicable to viscid (mucilaginous) material or scanty in juice. The fresh plant, or part thereof, is pounded to a fine pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, and after thoroughly mixing the pulp with one-sixth part of it, the rest of the alcohol is then added. After having stirred the whole, and having filled it into a well-stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand for eight days, in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering.
Drug power of the tincture is 1/6.
a. Centesimal Scale : Six minims of tincture and ninety-four minims of dilute alcohol give the 1st centesimal potency. One minim of the 1st potency and ninety-nine minims of alcohol give the 2nd centesimal potency. All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to ninety-nine minims of dispensing alcohol.
b. Decimal Scale : Six minims of tincture and four minims of dilute alcohol give 1x potency. One minim of 1x potency and nine minims of dilute alcohol give 2x potency. One minim of 2x potency and nine minims of dilute alcohol give 3x potency.
All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to nine minims of dilute alcohol.
The tinctures are prepared with five parts by weight of alcohol to one part of plant or parts thereof. The fundamental rule for this class is contained in Hahnemann's Mat. Med. Pura, under Spigelia and Staphysagria. Weigh the finely divided substances (dried vegetable and animal substances are pulverized, fresh animal substances pounded) and five parts by weight of alcohol is poured over it, then let the mixture remain for eight days (provided that for the particular medicine a longer maceration is not required), at ordinary temperature in a dark cool place shaking it twice a day; then pour off, strain and filter.
Drug powder of the tincture is 1/10.
a. Centesimal Scale : Ten minims of the tincture and ninety minims of alcohol give the 1st centesimal potency. One minim of 1st potency and ninety-nine minims of alcohol give 2nd centesimal potency. All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to ninety-nine minims of dispensing alcohol.
b. Decimal Scale : As the tincture contains 1/10 drug power, it corresponds to the 1x potency. One minim of tincture and nine minims of dilute alcohol give 2x potency. All succeeding potencies are prepared with one minim of the preceding potency to
nine minims of dilute alcohol.
Today we use pure samples of the drug of 10 Percent strength, with a few exceptions, which we call mother tincture. The solvent used in either water or alcohol, depending upon the solubility of the drug. Hahnemann had also recognized this problem
and had classified these drugs. In class V he included all those chemical drugs which were soluble in water. He sub-classified them as Va and Vb, depending upon their solubility in the strength of 10 Percent or 1 Percent respectively. The drugs in class Va are Acid nitric, Acid phosphoric, Ammon mur, Nat mur, etc. In class Vb are Acid picric, Oxalic acid, Hydrocyanic acid, etc. Class VI was again sub-divided into VIa and VIb, which include chemicals soluble in alcohol, either in 10 Percent and 1 Percent strength respectively. In VIa are included drugs like Acid benzoic, and carbolic, Amyl nitrate, Guaicum, etc. and in VIb are included drugs like Acid lacticum, Petroleum, Iodum, Glonoine, etc.
All amorphous, crude or insoluble (or very sparingly soluble) drug substances neither soluble in water nor in alcohol or in a mixture of water and alcohol in any proportion have been included in class VII. Here the crude substance was taken as mother substance. Today we follow the same process. The purity of drugs used then was uncertain. What Hahnemann used as Calcium
carbonate was obtained from oyster shells. It was impure but what we use today in practice is laboratory pure calcium carbonate. Again the impurity found in oyster shells may be different when collected from different regions and/or species and this will depend upon various factors such as the place and time of collection of shells. No doubt the basic symptomatology may remain the same, but probably we may be able to collect some more very interesting data by re-proving them so that they will enrich our materia medica and might also help us to treat various other conditions more effectively. Drugs like Alumina, Arsenic alb, Calcarea carb, Carbo veg. were included in this class.
In 1876 the compilers of British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia started experiencing the difficulty of standardising the drug strength prepared by these methods. The lack of uniformity in drug strength was due to different degrees of solvency of different kind of drug substances in alcohol, or water and varying quantities of plant moistures, in different varieties of plants. It is observed that water in the form of moisture present in a plant is but a solvent and a part of the vehicle or menstruum and forms no part of its total medicinal substance.
British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, prepared 6 tables of quantities of dispensing alcohol with an idea of standardising the preparation. Unfortunately no new edition of B.H.P. has come out after its third edition in 1882. In 1885 the American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee, picked up the hint from B.H.P. and evolved a method to estimate the moisture content of each plant substance and the menstruum so determined that the ratio of drug substance in menstruum shall remain 1/10 (or 10 Percent) drug strength. In short they preferred to have the dry crude substance as the starting point or unit from which they calculate drug strength and discarded the B.H.P. method of tables for calculating the quantity of menstruum.
Hahnemann's view was that the plant moisture is a part of the drug substance but A.H.P. claims that it is only a solvent. Much can be argued on either side. HPI here recognizes both the methods of preparation of mother tinctures - the old Hahnemannian
and the new modern method.
The Modern Method of Preparation :
The modern method of preparation of Homoeopathic mother tinctures from vegetable source consists of the following steps:
1. Identification of the source material
2. An estimate of the plant moisture content
1. Identification of Source Material :
Identification of source material has already been explained in the previous chapter.
2. To Estimate the Plant Moisture Content :
Three methods are employed to estimate the plant moisture content:
(i) Gravimetric method : In order to obtain the best result, an official sample must be used while determining the moisture content. Take an official sample of the plant substance 500 gm. in weight and heat it over the water bath in a porcelain dish. The moisture of the plant magma will evaporate and will leave behind only solid residue of the magma. Heat the same on the water bath till the weight of the residue, when cooled to room temperature in a desiccator, remains constant.
The procedure for determining the moisture content of vegetable drugs, according to U.S.P., is as follows:
Place about 10 g. of the drug, prepared as directed and accurately weighed, in a tarred evaporation dish. Dry at 105xC for 5 hours, and weigh. Continue the drying and weighing at one hour intervals, until the difference between two successive weighings corresponds to not more than 0.25 Percent.
For Example :
Let 500 gms. of fresh plant pulp be taken for drying in water bath. It leaves a constant weight of 150 gms. of dry plant residue. This means that the moisture that evaporated was 350 gms. In other words 150 gms of dry residue contains 350 gms. of moisture. Therefore 100 gms. of dry residue will contain 100x350 = 35000/150 = 233 gms of water or 233 ml of water. To make a litre of mother tincture when 100 gms. of dry material is used, 800 ml of vehicle is required. The additional 33 ml of water compensates for the volume of shrinkage, which is approximately 3 Percent.
(ii) Volumetric method : (Toluene Distillation method) By the use of the apparatus shown in Fig.1 water may be determined by volume measurement. The sample and toluene is placed in flask A and the mixture distilled. Toluene and water form an azeotropic mixture and codistill into the condenser C and the cooled vapour, after condensation, falls back into the receiver B. Water, being of greater density than toluene, falls to the graduated portion E and the volume is read directly. Care must be taken to ensure that any water droplets adhering to B or C are washed into E.
(iii) Titrimetric Method : (Karl Fischer Method). The Karl Fischer titrimetric determination of water depends upon the fact that a solution of sulphur dioxide and iodine in pyridine and methanol reacts with water quantitatively. The entire operation
requires right exclusion of atmospheric moisture. In colourless solutions, the end-point of the titration may be determined
electrometrically or visually by a change from a canary yellow to an amber colour. In coloured solutions the end-point is obscured and is best determined electrometrically. For this purpose, the required apparatus embodies a simple electrical circuit, which serves to pass 5 to 10 microamperes of direct current at a 1.5 volt potential between a pair of platinum electrodes immersed in the solution to be titrated. An ordinary pH meter will serve this purpose nicely. At the end-point of the titration a slight excess of the reagent increases the flow of current to between 50 and 150 microamperes for 30 seconds or longer, depending upon the solution being titrated. The time is shortest for substances which react with the reagent.
Any apparatus may be used which provides for adequate exclusion of atmospheric moisture and determination of the end-point. The commercially available apparatus generally comprises a closed system consisting of one or two automatic burettes and a
tightly covered titration vessel fitted with the necessary electrodes and a magnetic stirrer. The air in the system is kept dry with a desiccant such as phosphorus or silica gel. The latter may contain an indicator to reveal its state of hydration.
Unless otherwise mentioned, add about 25 ml. of methanol to the titration flask and titrate to the end-point with the Karl Fischer Reagent, disregarding the volume consumed, since it does not enter into the calculations. Weigh or measure a sufficient sample to contain preferably 10 to 50 mg. of water, and quickly transfer it to the titration flask. Stir vigorously, and again titrate with the Karl Fischer Reagent. The water content of the sample, in mg. is given by the formula S X F, in which S is the volume of reagent used to titrate the sample, and F is the water equivalence factor defined above.
3. Maceration :
Thus when the quantity of the vehicle has been ascertained, the process of maceration should be undertaken. Take the pulp of the desired drug substance in an enamelled vessel or a stainless steel vessel with a lid and add to it the required (pre-calculated) menstruum and keep it tightly closed in a cool dark place for at least seven days, stirring it at the most once a day. Alcohol being volatile might evaporate out and hence there is a possibility of reduction in volume. Sometimes it is necessary to add alcohol at the end of the process to make the final volume read 1000 ml. At the end of seven days the separated fluid is decanted off and the residue is carefully collected and pressed out to procure the remaining juice. The total juice thus obtained is the mother tincture of that drug substance. The entire process should be carried out in a controlled atmosphere of 15xC to 20xC.
4. Percolation :
This process is used when the drugs are in dry forms or drugs obtained from xerophytes, (Cactus grand) and which can be easily powdered to coarse mesh of 60 to 80. It is a little more difficult process to carry out than the process of maceration, as no special technique is required in the latter. The efficiency of the process depends on the following factors :
a) The physical structure of the drug: the substances which are hard and horny in structure must be pulverised to required powder form.
b) The substances which are very loose and quickly penetrated by the menstruum can afford to be less finer or coarse. This fineness should be in conformity with the specification mentioned under each monograph. This powder must be uniform in
The general rule in percolation is to moisten the powder, the purpose of which is to make it more absorbable by the menstruum. The vegetable drugs in their natural state contain moisture and, when they are dried, they absorb moisture very slowly and, when they are packed in a percolator, this difficulty is more pronounced. The powder packing is therefore more important in this process and the skill exhibited in this pays dividends, while collecting the mother tincture at the end.
When the percolator has been packed with the powdered drug substance, a thin filter paper is placed on the top and some kind of weight say an inverted small-sized funnel, so that the filter paper does not move. A careful adding of the menstruum is necessary for fear of creating any fissure which will yield inferior quality of mother tincture, as it will not extract complete drug substance.
The menstruum in divided quantity should be added so that the entire surface remains wet, and the gravity drop of this should be spread all along the height of the packed percolator, in order that it passes through the entire column of the drug packing when the collection at the bottom is becoming minimal, the fresh quantity should be added gradually, the whole idea being to keep the process in continuous action.
To obtain the maximum of the drug substance the menstruum is divided into various parts and added in parts, so that the last addition brings down practically colourless menstruum. This shows that the drug substance is exhausted and no more drug principle is left over in the packed powder.
Formerly, a filtration process was also designed in a percolator, with a special sieving, coarse and fine sand and coarse and fine glass powder, cotton wool separated by filter papers. But this process has been discarded now for obvious reasons. Proper packing, gradual adding of the menstruum becomes a good basis of better mother tincture yield.
The whole process works on the following principle: When a powder, placed in a cylindrical vessel with a porous diaphragm below, is treated from above with a liquid capable of dissolving a portion of the substance, the portion of fluid first in contact, in passing downward exercises its solvent power on the successive layers of powder until saturated and is impelled downwards by the combined force of its own gravity and that of the column of liquid above it, minus the capillary force which the powder tends to retain it. The physical forces acting are gravitation, viscocity, adhesion, friction, osmosis, capillarity and surface tension.
From animal and chemical source :
Hahnemann was a chemist of repute and had developed his own methods of preparation of mother tinctures from mineral or chemical substances. Some of his preparations are already discussed.
Chemistry as a science and technique was not very much developed in his times and therefore a correct standardization in obtaining pure products was not possible. However Hahnemann depended entirely on his abilities. Much needs to be searched whether what he prepared from time to time was identical with his previous products. But today chemistry has made phenomenal strides and there are definite methods of preparation, purification, standardisation and ways of determining their identity, purity, etc. Any basic product in a standard form is easily available as and when required.
Hahnemann prepared phosphoric acid by treating calcined bones with strong sulphuric acid, and later by brandy. The ninth edition of American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia gives an elaborate process of manufacture in which a number of steps
are involved before phosphoric acid is obtained, but not without some traces of Ammonia. It therefore, suggested oxidising the free phosphorus acid dissolving in water. The seventh revised edition of Pharmacopoeia of the United States gives the preparation of glacial phosphoric acid from Phosphorus pentoxide, which is now available in pure form. One does not see any conformity in these three different processes as far as the purity and standard of the product are concerned.
It is quite likely that there may be a difference. If that be so then the symptoms produced by the drug prepared by three different processes may be a little different. There may be more symptoms or even fewer symptoms. This is not the only example, and many more such instances can be cited. Hahnemann's Calcarea carb, Hepar sulphuris, Mercurius solubilis, Causticum are a few examples. One thing that emerges from this is that a large scale organized research in drug proving (reproving) of the drugs now prepared should be carried out before coming to any plausible conclusion. Surely materia medica will be much richer and will keep pace with modern trends by such a venture.
From Nosodes : Sarcodes :
The collection of these drug substances has an elaborate technique and they are mostly obtained from special laboratories dealing only in these products. The methods are obscure. To overcome this difficulty the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee of India has proposed methods for the collection and preparation of these products.
No pharmacopoeias or other works on homoeopathic literature indicate any procedure or methodology for the preparation of nosodes. Some workers undertook the task at the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory, Ghaziabad, India and developed
methods to identify and classify in groups, depending upon their constituents and determined their methods of preparation.
General Instructions for Preparation of Nosodes :
Nosodes or Biotherapeutic preparations, as they are often known as, are preparations from pure microbial culture of diseased tissue and clinical materials (secretion, discharges, etc.) These are processed from the original stock built from isolated
microbes, diseased tissues and clinical materials from which the primary stocks are prepared. These may be divided into 4 groups and have been designated as N-I, N-II, NIII and N-IV, depending upon the nature of the material used. The prefix N (denoting Nosodes) has been given to differentiate from the conventional methods of preparation as advised for other drugs by Hahnemann.
1. Preparations made from lysate of micro-organisms capable of producing bacterial endo-toxins, e.g. Typhoidinum, Para-typhoidinum, E. coli, Bacillinum and Staphylococcinum etc. are processed by method N-I.
2. Products made from micro-organisms capable of producing extra-cellular toxins, e.g. Diphtherinum are processed by method N-II.
3. Preparations made from pure toxin are processed by method N-III.
4. Preparations made from micro-organism/viruses/clinical materials from human convalescents or diseased subjects, e.g. Variolinum, Psorinum, Influenzinum, Syphilinum, Morbillinum and Parotidinum are processed by method N-IV.
General method for collection and preparation of strain :
Microbes are available as pure organism-or obtained from suitable clinical material from suffering subjects, isolated, cultured and identified. Their properties are studied after complete identification as per individual monograph and they are lyophilised to ensure preservation and stability of characteristics. The first step is involved in preparation of Culture medium most suitable for growth of the organism from which homoeopathic nosodes are to be prepared. The solid medium generally recommended is
nutrient agar which is satisfactory in most cases. In other instances special solid culture media containing proteins such as blood agar, serum agar, have also been recommended. Freshly isolated organisms invariably of S-Type are recommended for use. Stock nosodes should be made from recently isolated organisms only. Where this is impracticable the culture should be kept below 5xC so that they retain their full antigenic value. Stock cultures are most often maintained in a lyophilised stage.
Repeated subculture of a strain degenerates and lowers its antigenic value and has been found to be less useful and is not recommended. Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph, the culture is allowed to incubate for 24 hours at 37xC. At incubation the micro-organisms are harvested under aseptic condition by pouring sterile isotonic salt solution on the solid media and then generally shaking or scraping until all the micro-organisms have been suspended. Its scraping is necessary and the removal of culture medium should be avoided. Subsequently the suspension is centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 30 minutes the liquid discarded and the sediment containing the bacterial growth is resuspended in 0.9 Percent sodium chloride solution, shaken well and centrifuged again. The suspension of bacteria is examined again for purity. It is essential that purity of the strain is maintained, during incubation and handling. Purity is checked at different stages. In case of contamination the lot should be rejected and a fresh strain used. After 24 hours of growth in an incubator, a colony is re-examined for checking the characteristics and purity of the strain. The culture is then taken up in the 0.9 percent aqueous sodium chloride solution.
The growth is suspended again in isotonic solution, shaken to break up clumps and to make a uniform suspension. The number of bacteria in each ml of suspension is measured by standard technique and is adjusted to 20 million germs per millilitre (2 x 10 10) which form the original stock in case of drugs of groups N-I and N-II. For group N-III and group N-IV the strength for Ix should be 1 part of the pure material in 9 parts of the suspending / diluting media which may be Lactose or Glycerin, as suggested in individual monographs.
Nosodes, Group N-I :
Bacteriolysis of the suspension containing 20 million germs/ml in distilled water is carried out by sonicator, till most of the bacterial cells are ruptured. The material is centrifuged at 10,000 rpm. for 30 minutes. The filter sterilized supernate containing the endotoxin is treated with equal volume of strong alcohol (95 Percent v/v). This strength is sealed in separate ampoules and is labelled as primary-stock nosode. For the purpose of homoeopathic attenuations, it is equated to mother solution Ix and is preserved at 46xC.
Nosodes, Group N-II :
The toxigenicity of the strain is established before use. The suspension having 20 million germs/ml is mixed with equal volume of 95 Percent ethyl alcohol and hermetically sealed under aseptic condition. It is labelled as primary-stock-nosode. For the purpose of homoeopathic attenuation, it is equated to mother solution (1x) and is preserved between 4-10xC. Further attenuations are made in dispensing alcohol (H.P.I.) in ratio 1:9. This must comply with the test for sterility before being issued.
Nosodes, Group N-III :
It is prepared from pure toxins. The purity and standards are checked as per standards mentioned in the individual monograph. Preparations are made by trituration in lactose with drug strength 1/10. Attenuation up to 6x is kept in hermetically sealed ampoules and stored in conditions prescribed under the individual monograph.
Nosodes, Group N-IV :
Suitable clinical material from relatively virulent type or severe cases is collected and used for this purpose. Preparations are made by trituration method by Class IX (which is similar to the one mentioned by Dr. Hahnemann in Chronic Disease under 'Agaricus'), the trituration and dynamization being done 1:9 by weight in Saccharum Lactis. Attenuations up to 6x should be stored between 4-6xC.
1. Centrifuge speed in all the above operations should not be below 10,000 rpm, the operation being minimum 30 minutes or till complete separation in a refrigerated centrifuge.
2. The supernatant liquid should be filtered with seitz filter or manifold membrane filter.
3. No chemical antiseptics or bacteriostatics should be mixed with the material at any stage of operation. In cases where normal saline solution is used, proper care should be taken to remove the same completely before attenuation.
4. Preservations of all the products and potencies below 6x should be done in a refrigerator at Plus 4xC to 6xC.
5. Live organisms should be handled with care and by observing aseptic conditions.
6. Bacterial count means total number of organisms per ml. (live or dead).
7. As far as possible, the substances used in original proving should be taken as the starting raw material.
8. To check the hygienic condition of the laboratory plate, the count should be done from time to time.
9. The test for sterility as mentioned for aerobic and anaerobic organism in Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1964, should be made before the issue of any nosode 6x or below, for therapeutic use or for manufacture of higher attenuations.
10. All potencies below 3x of Group N-I, N-II and N-III should bear the date of manufacture and a life period of six months from the date of manufacture. Bowel Nosodes or Intestinal nosodes of Bach-Paterson
Towards 1925, Dr.Bach, a British medical practitioner and an eminent bacteriologist, being attracted by the Hahnemannian doctrine, prepared some vaccines from many stocks of intestinal Saprophytic bacilli. He communicated with Whealer, Dishington : then with Paterson, Rose and Gardon. Their work was presented at the International Homoeopathic Congress held in London in 1927. Dishington communicated his findings in the British Homoeopathic Journal of 1929. The basic cause of all the diseases of Psoric diathesis was traced by them at the intestinal apparatus.
The preparation of Nosodes of Bach Paterson is as follows:
1. An emulsion of faecal matter is prepared by pouring 5 ml of sterile water in a tube which was used for collection with cotton holder charged with germs.
2. A petri dish is smeared with a drop of that emulsion, by means of a glass rod.
3. Then it is incubated at 37xC for 18 hours.
4. The dish is examined in sunlight.
5. Colony is taken out with a sterilized platinum spatula and then it is transplanted on gelatine.
6. The transplanted culture is again transferred in an incubator for 18 hours.
7. The surface of the gelatine is covered with sterile water for 18 hours. The solution is sealed in tubes and heated in a water bath for 30 minutes at 60xC.
B Morgan or Proteus Morgan :
Gram negative bacilli, short, isolated, facultatively anaerobic is isolated from faecal matter of children suffering from summer diarrhoea.
Dysentery-co or B Dysenteriae :
Shiga (1939) isolated them. Shigellas belong to the large family of enterobacteriaciae. By their physiological and morphological characteristics they are related to Escheria, Klebsiella, Proteus and Salmonella. At present 10 serological types
B Gaertner or Salmonella enteriditis :
Bacillus gaertner or Salmonella enteriditus is from the Salmonella group. This is frequently found in animals, and often cause food intoxication in man.
B Metabilis of Paterson :
It corresponds to Bacillus cole-mutabile.
B Faecalis of Bach :
It corresponds to Bacillus faecalis alcaligens.
Cocal co of Paterson :
It has no corresponding nomenclature in bacteriology. It is indicated in septic state Bacillus No.7 (B asiaticus, B cloacae and B freundi). According to the French biological and medical dictionary, it is a gram negative bacilli, the characteristics of which are related to aerobacteur aerogeus isolated from water, from soil and mainly from faecal matter of men and animals.
Sycotic co :
It is a coccus which does not ferment lactose-morphologically similar to gonococcus.
FROM VENOMS :
Venoms are obtained from serological laboratories and they are quickly dry-freezed and preserved. Hahnemann included them in class VIII. He advocated trituration with milk-sugar for their potentisation and then for converting them to liquid potencies.
Hahnemann's class IX deals with preparation from fresh vegetable and animal substance. This method is now discarded. Drugs included under this class are Agaricus, Anthracinum, etc.
Once the mother tincture is prepared, it is necessary that it should be stored in well-stoppered amber coloured bottles, in clean, cool, dark and dry place and away from direct sunlight.
All potentised medicines should also be kept in glass stoppered bottles. Drugs emanating peculiar odours should be stored separately. The sore should be always and regularly cleaned, so should be jars and the bottles. The normal temperature should be ensured.